Khan Academy Live: SAT Reading Class

– Hello and welcome to Khan Academy live SAT class. My name is Eric, I’m an SAT tutor and one of the SAT experts here at Khan Academy. This is class number two of three that we have planned for the SAT over the next few weeks and I’m very excited to be covering SAT Reading today. Before we jump into SAT Reading, I want to give you a preview of what we’re going to cover today and next week, let’s take a look. So last week we covered SAT Math, in our first class, and if you missed that class, don’t worry, we recorded it and you can find it on our YouTube channel so go ahead and check that out if you’re interested and today, like I mentioned, we’re gonna cover SAT Reading and then the following week, we’ll cover SAT Writing and all of these classes will be at the same times, so Thursday, they’ll all be on Thursdays at 7pm Eastern, 4pm Pacific, so these are all the classes that we’ll have planned and for today, let’s take a look at what we’ll cover for SAT Reading.

So for today’s class, the first 25 minutes I’ll spend giving some instruction and doing some practice problems together. Specifically, I’m going to introduce a strategy called Rephrase & Predict, which is a more proactive approach, that you can use for SAT Reading questions that I found really helpful and that many students find helpful to try. Next, I’ll cover Words in Context problems and Command of Evidence problems as well and we’ll do some practice problems together. Then, in the next 10 minutes, I will answer some student questions, and so at that point, you’ll have a chance to add comments in YouTube and I’ll try and answer as many questions as I can in the time that I have, I’ll give out the Khan Academy badge and all of that and then in the last 25 minutes, you’ll practice what you’ve learned on Khan Academy and just like last class, we have a number of Khan Academy and College Board experts available to help you while you have questions. Unlike last class, after the instruction and Q&A, I’ll sign off and you’ll just head to Khan Academy to practice.

You won’t need to come back to YouTube this time around so you’ll spend 35 minutes on YouTube and then, in the next 25 minutes, practice, do reading problems and we’ll be there to help via one-on-one chat. So, let’s take a look at what we’re gonna cover and get started. So why are we talking about proactive reading strategies today? Well, let me pose a few questions and let me know if any of these sound familiar or if you’ve ever been in this kind of situation before. So, have you ever read the answer choices and thought, well, all of these look good, and, you know, you’re kind of stuck there? Or, maybe you get the question down to two choices but then end up picking the wrong one, or you’re always 50-50 and not sure which one to pick? Or maybe you’re like I was, when I first started practicing for the SAT Reading and maybe you run out of time on the SAT Reading section? Well, that’s why we’re chatting about the Rephrase & Predict strategy.

So this strategy is one that I found that was really helpful for me and helpful for a number of students and so, I’d recommend giving it a try, it’s certainly not the only way to approach SAT Reading questions but it’s, it can be really helpful once you get the hang of it, when you are approaching SAT Reading questions. So this strategy really focuses on coming up with your own answer to reading questions before you look at the answer choices. So this is the most important word, before and there are really two parts, so this first part, involves, is called the Rephrase portion and this part involves reading the question but covering the answer choices and this is really important, so that you don’t distract yourself with the answer choices up front and then if possible, rephrase the question into a how, what or why question, and this can really help simplify the question to put it in your own words and can just make sure that you understand the question before you move on. The next step in this strategy is to predict and so you would start by reviewing the relevant parts of the passage, so go back and re-read a little bit before, a little bit after where you need to and then, based on that, predict the answer to the question in your own words and so if the question is asking the author’s purpose in paragraph two is, you would actually say, in your own words, well I think it was to introduce amphibians as a relevant population for this biological study, so you would say something in your own words to answer the question.

Then, and only then, would you uncover the answer choices and then start crossing out the choices that don’t match your prediction and select the choice that best matches, and so, instead of a different approach of reading the question, looking at the answer choices and then evaluating one by one, you come up with your own prediction first and then that really can help when you do finally look at the answer choices and it can help you hone in on the ones that match your prediction and are supported by the passage and eliminate the ones that might look plausible but once you have that prediction in your mind of, oh, well, I think the answer is this amphibian thing, it’s easier to do that matching and to hone in on the right question.

So let’s take a look at what this looks like for a practice problem now, just to make it a little more tangible and real. So, step one, if you’re watching from home, is to take your hand, right hand, left hand, whichever one and cover up answer choices A through D, so go ahead and cover up those answer choices and now, we’ll do the Rephrase part of that strategy. So, as used in line three, vent most nearly means, and so this is a more straightforward question but it is just, essentially, we could rephrase it to what does vent mean and now, if I had the passage, I would go back to the passage, read a little bit around the word vent, gather some context clues, and then say my prediction for the second part of the strategy was that vent meant gap, and so I’d write down my prediction or just say it in my head, and then, and only then, so you can lift up your hand now, would I look at the answer choices, and at that point, with gap in mind, it’s a bit easier to eliminate some of the answer choices that don’t match, and narrow it down to the ones that do.

So, for example, gap doesn’t fit passage as well, doesn’t fit outlet as well, and then I’m down to opening and crack, and in the real SAT I would go into the reading passage, gather some context clues and see what I’m finding there. So, that’s an example of how this Rephrase and Predict strategy looks for a standalone sample problem and later in class we’re gonna apply this strategy in a real SAT reading passage with a few questions just so you get used to it. But before we do that, I want to cover Words in Context and Command of Evidence problems, which are two common problems that you’ll see in the SAT Reading.

So Words in Context questions, what are these exactly? So these problems measure your understanding of the meaning and use of words and phrases in the context of passages and this word, context, is the most important part. And so these questions don’t ask you to define words, you might know the meaning of words in day to day life like determination, but what makes these questions unique is that the context of the passage is crucial and so you wanna look a little bit before and after and around the word, so that you can gather the surrounding words, ideas and circumstances to pick up on how the author is using the word in the passage and what it means.

And so there are two specific types of Words in Context questions and the first one, is interpreting words and phrases in context. So these questions ask you what word or phrase means as used in the passage, and so that’s very much like the sample problem we did around the word vent as used in line three, most nearly means and so you’re probably familiar with these. The next type asks you how the author’s choice of words affects the passage and affects the meaning, tone and style. So if this first question type is more of a what question, this second question type is more of a purpose or impact, is one helpful way of thinking about it.

So we’ll take a look at these Words in Context problems later in class but this should give you a good overview of the types of Words in Context questions you might see on the SAT on the Reading section and also in the Writing Section, so let’s keep going now to Command of Evidence. So Command of Evidence questions are designed to see whether you understand how an author uses evidence to support a claim or argument or point that they’re making and this is a skill that’s tested on the SAT because it’s really crucial in college, in the workforce, you know, once you graduate, or in day to day life and so it really is very applicable to creating arguments, defending arguments, evaluating them and on the SAT, how will they show up? Well, there are three types of evidence questions that you’ll see, and so the first one asks you to determine the best type of evidence, so it’ll ask you what textual evidence provides the best support or, the other type of question here, will show up in pairs where it’ll ask you what is the main point of paragraph one and then the second question will ask you what evidence best supports your answer to the first question.

Now, the second type of question under the evidence section will ask you to interpret data in graphics of different kinds and it’ll ask you to look at the graphic, understand it and how it relates to the passage and any claims the author may be making. Now, a tip I would have here, would be to break down the graph piece by piece, so rather than trying to understand it all at once, ask yourself just one simple question at a time, so that you build up your understanding from the ground up and so you could ask what is the title, and what is it telling me? You could ask about the axes next, and so the axes and units, you might look at the key, and all of these questions will help you build to the point where you can state, in your own words, this graph is showing me the distribution of fir trees around California.

Now, the third and final type of evidence question asks you how an argument uses or doesn’t use specific pieces of evidence, so those are things like facts, figures, quotations, and how that influences the author’s claims or arguments that they’re making. So, there were was a lot of information to take in up front, but let’s now apply what we’ve discussed so far on the Rephrase & Predict strategy, Words in Context questions and the Command of Evidence questions, within a real SAT passage. So let’s get some practice together before you head off to Khan Academy to practice yourself.

Oop, let me zoom out a little bit here. So, before I start, before we start going through this passage, I just wanna share that how we go through the passage today might be a little bit different from how you would do this if you were by yourself at home and it’s just because I’m on a computer and so it’s harder, it’s just a little hard for me to show you all of the passage at once and so, just for today, as we walk through it, we’ll go through this a few paragraphs at a time and bounce back and forth between the questions but how you would do this at home, might look a little bit different, okay? So let’s take a look, let’s go ahead and read the passage just up to this point here and then we’ll pause. So let’s go ahead and do that.

This passage is excerpted from Kasley Killam, A Hug A Day Keeps the Doctor Away, okay. Scientific American, okay, so looks like a study. So, during my final semester of undergrad, I made two signs that read, feeling stressed about exams, have a free hug! Then I recruited a friend and we stood in the entrance of the campus library, held up the signs, and waited. Passersby had one of two reactions, either they quickly looked down at their phones and awkwardly shuffled by, or their faces lit up as they embraced us. Most people were enthusiastic. Some exclaimed, “You made my day!” Or “thank you, I needed this.” One leapt into my arms, nearly toppling me over. After two hours of warm interactions, my friend and I couldn’t believe how energized and happy we felt. Okay, so let me go through that again and just mark up a few important things, so, feeling stressed about exams, have a free hug, and they had warm interactions and then, at the end, they were feeling pretty energized and happy, so then this seems like just a story about how, at the end of this person’s undergrad career, okay.

So let’s read the next paragraph now. A study published earlier this month suggests that, in addition to making us feel connected to others, all those hugs may have prevented us from getting sick, okay, so that seems important and this is the topic sentence of the paragraph so worth paying a little more attention to. At first, this finding probably seems counterintuitive, not to mention bizarre. You might think, like I did, that hugging hundreds of strangers, hugging strangers would increase your exposure to germs and therefore the likelihood of falling ill, okay. But, we’ve got a but here, so but words, contrast words are very important, and often signal a shift in the passage so, but, the new research out of Carnegie Mellon indicates that feeling connected especially through physical touch, protects us from stress-induced sickness. Okay, so this research adds to a large amount of evidence for the positive influence of social support on health. Okay, so just to confirm that I understand this passage, we’ve got a topic sentence that said feeling connected to others seems to have these health benefits and hugging a lot of people, rather than exposing you to germs, actually, according to the Carnegie Mellon study offers some protection against stress-induced sickness, okay.

Okay, so I think I understand that, and what you’ll notice, as I was reading the passage, was that I was pretty actively writing and underlining and making sure that I understood what I was reading as I went and so there’s an active reading article that we have on Khan Academy that would be great to check out but that’s how you can read and make sure you understand along the way, to save yourself time, so you aren’t re-reading as much as you go along. So, we have the passage, now let’s look at the first question.

So here we’re gonna use the Rephrase & Predict strategy that we mentioned, so again, take your left hand or your right hand, whichever non-dominant hand you have, and go ahead and cover up A through D and now we’re gonna look at the questions. So the first paragraph serves mainly to, so we’re just looking up until this part, everything above this part, and if I rephrase this, this is just what is the purpose of the first paragraph. Okay, so I don’t need to write that down since it’ll take me some time. So what is the purpose of the first paragraph? Well, let’s take a look at the first paragraph and probably a little bit of context from the second as well and that will inform my prediction for what I think the answer is.

So, when I was reading this passage earlier, this seemed like the author’s story about something he did in undergrad, about making signs and mentioned how positive this hugging experience was and then, in the next paragraph, we’ve got the study and the impact of hugs and we get a little more scientific here and so the first paragraph serves mainly to, or the purpose of the first paragraph, my prediction here is going to be that it was a story and then if we look at the structure here, we have the story here and then we have the study here, so that’s kind of how I’m thinking about it, story that leads into the study and so that’s my prediction and, as you can see, it doesn’t have to be super sophisticated and complex, in fact, if you have a good understanding of the passage the prediction is often pretty simple and a few words is all that you need.

And so now, I can uncover the answer choices A through D and take a look at which one matches my prediction of the author used the first paragraph as a story, as a way of introducing and giving background for the study. So, let’s take a look at the first one, provide background information necessary to understand the scientific study, so that is not completely off from what I mentioned but not exactly what I said either, so I’ll leave that in and then introduce the scientific study through a personal anecdote. Okay, so that’s actually very close to my prediction since an anecdote is a story and I mentioned this introduce piece so that seems like the top candidate so far. But let’s take a look at these other ones, so show that not all scientific experiments need to be conducted in a laboratory.

Well, we’re not talking, in the passage, about all scientific experiments and there’s no mention of a laboratory in the passage so I can go ahead and cross that one out. And then last one, describe the author’s experience as the subject of the scientific study. So, the first paragraph is more of a story and the author actually doesn’t mention that it was a scientific study, it was just more of something that they did in the last semester, so this scientific study will eliminate this, and so B is really the best choice that matches my prediction, which was based on the information that I had in the passage.

So that’s an example of how Rephrase & Predict is used in practice, it can take some getting used to but once you practice a little bit more, you’ll get faster and faster at that and once you have the prediction, going through the answer choices will be a lot faster. Now, the other thing I’ll point out is that as I was going through the answer choices, you might have seen me cross off certain parts of answer choices, and that was because the right answer will be completely right and supported by the passage and if there is a part of an answer choice that feels off or isn’t supported by the passage, that’s enough for me to cross it off and so that just helps me eliminate answer choices a little bit faster and is another thing you can try. So let’s take a look at some of the other questions and keep on going.

So let’s take a look, in the second paragraph the author implies that the study shows hugs to be, so now we’re talking about this paragraph, second paragraph, here. Author implies that the study shows hugs to be, so this is, I can rephrase this to be study shows hugs to be, hugs to be question mark. Okay, and again, I’m not looking at the answer choices yet since that will automatically influence my thinking and I’ll start thinking well maybe it’s A, maybe it’s D, but before I have formed my own opinion, I don’t wanna do that so let’s take a look back at the second paragraph and look for the study and what the author is implying about that. So, study published earlier suggests that hugs make us feel connected and prevent us from getting sick, and prevent us from getting sick and then here’s the study, here, so new research out of Carnegie Mellon, shows that feeling connected, especially through physical touch, protects us from stress-induced sickness. So that is pretty positive, so hugs good, is kind of the takeaway there and so then my prediction for what the author is saying implies that the study shows about hugs, is that hugs are good for health, good for health and have these health benefits or have these protection, will help protect us from sickness, or protect from sickness.

And now, with that prediction I can go ahead and uncover the answer choices and look through A through D, so let’s take a look. A says that hugs are the only proven method of preventing sickness, so only proven method, makes that not correct, cos the study says that there’s some benefits of hugs but certainly doesn’t claim that it’s the only proven method, and doesn’t match my prediction either, so let’s keep going. Less successful than social support at protecting people from colds and other illnesses. So in this case, they’re making an interesting comparison here about less successful than social support and that’s really not something that’s mentioned in the second paragraph, and again, doesn’t match my prediction based on the paragraph, so this less successful than social support, there’s no comparison that’s being made in that paragraph, so we can go ahead and cross that out.

And then we have not conclusively effective at helping people maintain good health. So this actually, the tone of this is hugs are so-so, we’re not sure about hugs, but this was, we have hugs good here, we know hugs are good, even if we didn’t read the passage so that not conclusively effective is the opposite of what the author’s actually implying and so D then, one of several ways to guard against some illnesses. Well, here’s that part of my prediction, so protect from illness, good for health, and so therefore, my answer is D. So, this was now an example of a Command of Evidence problem and how the Rephrase & Predict strategy can be used in that context. But, this is a two-parter, so we’re not done yet. Let’s head back in and pinpoint the evidence that matches and supports our answer.

So, which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question? So, in this case, let’s take a look, we’ve got, again, so we’re looking for the best evidence here, and let’s go back and look at the passage here, and again, we’re not looking at the answer choices and so, why did I choose D, is essentially what the passage is saying and what evidence from the passage supports that and so, this is about the study showing hugs and so, you can hone in here on this hugs good section and the study is mentioned here, about Carnegie Mellon, the Carnegie Mellon study about physical touch protecting us from stress-induced illness, so that’s a great thing, and so I think that’s really where, where I made my decision there and so then I can uncover the answer choices and, looks like answer choice C is that answer.

And so, just for completion’s sake, I’ll make sure to look through some of these other ones just to walk through, but that matches exactly what I was thinking and my prediction about the Carnegie Mellon study. So, line 12 through 14, a study, sickness, so a study published earlier suggests that in addition to making us feel connected all these hugs may have prevented us from getting sick, so that one feels more like commentary and oh, actually forgot I posted this down here so we can look down here too, so that one is more of commentary, so that one’s out and then 16 to 18, you might think like I did that hugging hundreds of strangers would increase your exposure, that again is more commentary and isn’t providing evidence and then D is 21 to 23, this research adds to a large amount of evidence here, and again, that is not as strong as the evidence presented here that we’re citing from Carnegie Mellon so that one is out as well.

Okay, so now we’ve done some Command of Evidence, now let’s take a look at a Words in Context question and that’ll be the last practice problem we do together before we move on to a few other things. Let’s take a look at the next paragraph here, so it looks like we’re looking here now, from here to here, so social support can broadly be defined as the perception of meaningful relationships that serve as a psychological resource during tough times. More specifically, this means emotional support, such as expressions of compassion, and may include access to information or other assistance.

The researchers measured social support by giving out a questionnaire in which participants rated different statements. Then, they conducted interviews every night for two weeks to find out how often participants experienced conflict with others and how often they received hugs. Finally, the researchers infected participants with a common cold virus and observed what happened. So that part seems questionable, I don’t know about the ethics of doing that last part but this paragraph then is saying social support, what that means, and it looks like it’s emotional support and expressions of compassion, information and assistance and then this was how they conducted the rest of the experiment. Okay, so then in line 27, expressions most nearly means, so what does expressions mean, and so, more specifically, this means emotional support such as expressions of compassion and may include access to information or other assistance, okay. So I’ve taken into consideration the context and it seems like in this context, it’s expressions of compassion, could also be stated as acts of compassion or kindness and so these are kind of more physical behaviors is gonna be my prediction so then let’s take a look at what matches my prediction.

So, demonstrations, yep, that could be, demonstrations are an acts of kindness, seems pretty close. Declarations of compassion, that’s more words but I’ve got acts here, so I don’t think that one fits as well. We’ve got revelations, so that’s more, that means something like discoveries and we’re not discovering kindness here so that’s out and then looks of compassion, also doesn’t quite fit since I am all about acts of compassion and so demonstrations of compassion really is what fits best.

So this was the last practice problem that we’ll do together and if you wanna re-watch any of what we’ve gone through, we’ll send out the recording again but now, it’s time to do some, I’m gonna answer a few student questions and so, if you have any questions, go ahead and put them into the YouTube comments now and then I’ll answer as many as I can before we head over to Khan Academy to practice what we’ve learned. So, take a minute to do that as I get set up here.

Okay, so we’ve got a few questions from students here so let me take a look. First question, are there deducted points for incorrect answers on the SAT? So, answer to that is no, so there is no guessing penalty on the SAT on any of the sections and so that means if you’re not sure of the right answer for a question, you should always guess and so that goes for multiple choice, for free response in the Math section, and so you should always guess since there is no guessing penalty. Let’s see, another question we got is are the SAT practice tests on par with the real tests? Like if I score a 1300 on the practice test, would I expect to score that on the SAT? Well, assuming you’re talking about the practice tests on official SAT practice, on Khan Academy, those practice tests are official SAT tests released by College Board and are an accurate reflection of what you can expect on the real SAT.

So if you find yourself consistently scoring, say, in the 1250 to 1300 range, that is a pretty good indication of what you’ll get and what you might find on the real test day but the only thing I would say is there, on the real test day, there might be a few factors that aren’t at play during practice tests like nerves, or how well you slept, or what you ate that day, so it is a pretty good indication but it might not be exactly perfect. We got a question about general advice on how to manage time, well, the resource I’d direct you to there is there are a handful of articles on the Khan Academy in our tips and strategies section, that have tips for how you can manage your time on Math, Reading and Writing and so I’d really give that a thorough read through and it really has everything that I would tell you to do anyway and I think we’ll try and post that link in the comments as well but there are things like working through some of the simpler problems first, since all SAT questions are worth the same number of points, going through the easier and medium questions so that you have ample time for those before you go to the harder questions, is one way you can do it but really check out those articles for the best advice that we have on that.

We had a question, if your prediction doesn’t match the answers, does that mean you read it wrong? So that’s a great question, so say you had a prediction that the word vent meant gap and then it didn’t match anything in the answer choices, what I would encourage you to do then, is yes, to go back into the passage and make sure you’ve considered all of the context around the passage and make sure you understand that paragraph well enough that you can restate what the author is saying and what the purpose of that paragraph is in your own words and if you can state it in your own words, that is really a good check to see if you understood the author’s point and the argument or statement that they were making and so if your prediction doesn’t match, in that case yeah, I would go back to the passage and make sure you understood what the author was saying and then give that prediction another go.

Another way you could approach it is to just look at what the passage says and the evidence there. So the right answer in SAT Reading questions will have textual evidence to support it and so you can work backwards a little bit to look at the passage and see, okay, what evidence do I have to support one of these answer choices? Another question, should I read the passage first or read the questions first? So that one, there are a lot of different opinions on this and I would say, it really comes down to how you’ve practiced and what you’ve found works well. So some people will read through and scan the questions just so that they can mark out in the passage okay, I’ve got a question at line seven, a question at line 53, and then I need to notice a shift in tone somewhere and so that, for some students, they like to look at what they’re gonna be asked so that they know where to pay more attention to in the passage.

Other students, they wanna just focus, for other students a different approach of reading the whole passage, really understanding and understanding each paragraph and the author’s argument and claims and then looking at the questions is easier, so that they’re just focusing on understanding and then going into the questions. So I would really say practice, try both, see which one works best for you and go with that. I just wouldn’t, if you’re close to your test date, don’t change things up at the last minute. Okay, so we have another good question, if you’re forced to skip a question or guess, and have enough time to go back, should you go back to it at the end of the passage problem set or at the end of the reading portion? So I would definitely say at the end of the passage problem set, so say you have questions one through 11 on a reading passage and you skip number nine cos you’re like oh, I don’t know, it could be either of these, once you get to question 11, and you’ve finished all the questions on that passage, revisit question nine at that point because it’ll be easier for your brain to stay within the mode of that passage whereas if you wait til the end of the passage, you then have to remind yourself, okay, what was this passage about? And what was question nine asking? So it’ll just take you longer to do that.

So, we’re coming up a little bit on time now and so, unfortunately all the questions I can cover for now but I’ll cover more questions next time and for now, I wanna show you a few pointers about practicing for the SAT on Khan Academy, the badge, one-on-one chat, and all of that good stuff, so let’s take a look. So, like I mentioned at the beginning, we have people waiting to help you if you run into any questions and chat with you one-on-one but a common question we get, is what if I don’t see the one-on-one chat box on Khan Academy? Well, one thing I want to point out is that the one-on-one chat is only available on the SAT part, so make sure your web address looks something like and if you’re not on a URL that looks like that then that’s why the one-on-one chat is not showing up.

The other thing you can try is to try and refresh the page as well. Now, when you head over to Khan Academy, the first thing I’d recommend you do is to explore a bit and then do some practice problems. So while we have those wonderful folks who are volunteering their time to help, the best thing you can do is start by doing some practice problems yourself and then if you get stuck, reach out. In just a bit we’re also going to share the badge link and so that’ll show up in the comments and for that you will sign into your Khan Academy account and then your badge will show up in the top right corner, oh, this is no longer right, but there will be a notification icon that you’ll see there and so we’ll post the badge there and so now, if you’re familiar with official SAT practice on Khan Academy, go ahead and head over there now and sign into your Khan Academy account, start practicing, and if you get stuck, reach out to one of our amazing people who are here to help you today.

If you’re brand new to official SAT practice, I’m gonna do a quick walkthrough of some of the key parts just to get you started. So, this is official SAT practice on Khan Academy and so you’ll see this is the homepage, and if I wanted to practice, I’d just head over here and click practice and you’ll see that I have Math, Reading & Writing and Essay portions as well and for today, you’ll see that you can practice any reading topic here, or if you wanted to go to Writing & Language, you can practice anything here as well.

Now, if you want a refresher on a topic that you don’t see here, I’d really recommend you go up here to the search bar and type up a search, for say quadratic equations, right? So that’s one thing you can do and then if you have general questions about the SAT, the format, strategies you can use, so time management, for example, these are two great articles that I mentioned before, I would head here to go through and get answers to those questions. Let’s take a look, and I think that’s most of what I was going to cover, so go ahead and head over, and then, oh, the last thing I’ll call out, is this is where you’ll see that chat box and so you can just type in here, ask a question, and we’ll get back to you as soon as, reply as quickly as we can.

So, that’s all I have for you today on YouTube and so now it’s time to head over to Khan Academy, practice what you’ve learned, if you get stuck or have any questions, we’re here to help. For now, that’s all we have for today but I hope to see you next Thursday at 7pm Eastern, 4pm Pacific, for our last and final class on SAT Writing. Thanks so much, and I hope to see you next time..